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Tennyson kept visiting London, where he saw Thackeray and the despair of Carlyle, and at Bath House he was too modest to be introduced to the great Duke whose requiem he was to sing so nobly. The pieces had been composed at intervals, from onwards. These dates are worth observing. The theory of evolution, of course in a rude mythical shape, is at least as old as the theory of creation, and is found among the speculations of the most backward savages.

The Arunta of Central Australia, a race remote from the polite, have a hypothesis of evolution which postulates only a few rudimentary forms of life, a marine environment, and the minimum of supernormal assistance in the way of stimulating the primal forms in the direction of more highly differentiated developments. They had no distinct limbs or organs of sight, hearing, or smell.

This example of the doctrine of evolution in an early shape is only mentioned to prove that the idea has been familiar to the human mind from the lowest known stage of culture. Not less familiar has been the theory of creation by a kind of supreme being. The notion of creation, however, up to , held the foremost place in modern European belief.

But Lamarck, the elder Darwin, Monboddo, and others had submitted hypotheses of evolution. Now it was part of the originality of Tennyson, as a philosophic poet, that he had brooded from boyhood on these early theories of evolution, in an age when they were practically unknown to the literary, and were not patronised by the scientific, world. Thus the geological record is inconsistent, we learned, with the record of the first chapters of Genesis.

With other difficulties of an obvious kind, these presented themselves to the poet with renewed force when his only chance of happiness depended on being able to believe in a future life, and reunion with the beloved dead. Unbelief had always existed. We hear of atheists in the Rig Veda. In the early eighteenth century, in the age of Swift—. And what had the Duke of Argyll written on these themes some years before ? The late Duke, to whom Mr Harrison refers in this connection, was born in Maurice, with Jowett, C.

Kingsley, F. The dates answer Mr Harrison. Jowett did not publish anything till at least fifteen years after Tennyson wrote his poems on evolution and belief. Robertson was a young parson at Cheltenham. Ruskin had not published the first volume of Modern Painters. His Oxford prize poem is of Mr Stopford Brooke was at school.

The Duke of Argyll was being privately educated: and so with the rest, except the contemporary Maurice. But the train of thought is essentially that with which ordinary English readers have been made familiar by F. If these books contain the ideas of In Memoriam , it is by dint of repetition and borrowing from In Memoriam , or by coincidence. To be concerned so early with such hypotheses, and to face, in poetry, the religious or irreligious inferences which may be drawn from them, decidedly constitutes part of the poetic originality of Tennyson.

His attitude, as a poet, towards religious doubt is only so far not original, as it is part of the general reaction from the freethinking of the eighteenth century. Ay me! I fear All may not doubt, but everywhere Some must clasp Idols. Yet, my God, Whom call I Idol? Oh teach me yet Somewhat before the heavy clod Weighs on me, and the busy fret Of that sharp-headed worm begins In the gross blackness underneath.

Oh weary life! Oh spirit and heart made desolate! He is far from that happy cock-certainty, and consequently is exposed to the contempt of the cock-certain. The argument and conclusion of In Memoriam are the argument and conclusion of the life of Tennyson, and of the love of Tennyson, that immortal passion which was a part of himself, and which, if aught of us endure, is living yet, and must live eternally. There are said to have been less hopeful intervals. His faith is, of course, no argument for others,—at least it ought not to be. We are all the creatures of our bias, our environment, our experience, our emotions.

The experience of Tennyson was unlike the experience of most men. It yielded him subjective grounds for belief. Of course it may be an impulse to wrong thought. Wordsworth has a debt to Plato, a thinker not contemporary. It is not the ideas, it is the expression of the ideas, that marks the poet. Yet I cannot think it below the dignity of mankind, conscious that it is not omniscient. The poet does fail in logic In Memoriam , cxx. However, petulances like the verse on the greater ape are rare in In Memoriam. Ebooks

Theologically, the poem represents the struggle with doubts and hopes and fears, which had been with Tennyson from his boyhood, as is proved by the volume of But the doubts had exerted, probably, but little influence on his happiness till the sudden stroke of loss made life for a time seem almost unbearable unless the doubts were solved. They were solved, or stoically set aside, in the Ulysses , written in the freshness of grief, with the conclusion that we must be.

But the gnawing of grief till it becomes a physical pain, the fever fits of sorrow, the aching desiderium , bring back in many guises the old questions. This is the genesis of In Memoriam , not originally written for publication but produced at last as a monument to friendship, and as a book of consolation. No books of consolation can console except by sympathy; and in In Memoriam sympathy and relief have been found, and will be found, by many. Another, we feel, has trodden our dark and stony path, has been shadowed by the shapes of dread which haunt our valley of tribulation: a mind almost infinitely greater than ours has been our fellow-sufferer.

He has emerged from the darkness of the shadow of death into the light, whither, as it seems to us, we can scarcely hope to come. It is the sympathy and the example, I think, not the speculations, mystical or scientific, which make In Memoriam , in more than name, a book of consolation: even in hours of the sharpest distress, when its technical beauties and wonderful pictures seem shadowy and unreal, like the yellow sunshine and the woods of that autumn day when a man learned that his friend was dead.

No, it was not the speculations and arguments that consoled or encouraged us. We could not murmur, like the Queen of the May—. There was a young reader to whom All along the Valley came as a new poem in a time of recent sorrow. But the years have gone by, and have left. In this way to many In Memoriam is almost a life-long companion: we walk with Great-heart for our guide through the valley Perilous.

In this respect In Memoriam is unique, for neither to its praise nor dispraise is it to be compared with the other famous elegies of the world. We are not to suppose that Milton was heart-broken by the death of young Mr King, or that Shelley was greatly desolated by the death of Keats, with whom his personal relations had been slight, and of whose poetry he had spoken evil.

The passion of In Memoriam is personal, is acute, is life-long, and thus it differs from the other elegies. Moreover, it celebrates a noble object, and thus is unlike the ambiguous affection, real or dramatic, which informs the sonnets of Shakespeare. Yet it is not to be reckoned inferior to these because its aim and plan are other than theirs. Criticism is not the construction of a class list.

But we may reasonably say that In Memoriam is a noble poem, an original poem, a poem which stands alone in literature. The wonderful beauty, ever fresh, howsoever often read, of many stanzas, is not denied by any critic. The marvel is that the same serene certainty of art broods over even the stanzas which must have been conceived while the sorrow was fresh.

The second piece,. Yet it is as perfect as the proem of As a rule, the poetical expression of strong emotion appears usually to clothe the memory of passion when it has been softened by time. One may note such a point as that xiv. It may have happened to many to mistake, for a section of a second, the face of a stranger for the face seen only in dreams, and to find that the recognition brings no surprise.

Pieces of a character apart from the rest, and placed in a designed sequence, are xcii. In the first the poet says—. The author thus shows himself difficile as to recognising the personal identity of a phantasm; nor is it easy to see what mode of proving his identity would be left to a spirit. The poet, therefore, appeals to some perhaps less satisfactory experience:—. The third poem is the crown of In Memoriam , expressing almost such things as are not given to man to utter:—.

Vague words! Experiences like this, subjective, and not matter for argument, were familiar to Tennyson. I have shown, by the aid of dates, that it was not borrowed from Huxley, Mr Stopford Brooke, or the late Duke of Argyll. Maurice is reckoned probable by Canon Ainger, author of the notice of the poet in The Dictionary of National Biography. In the Life of Maurice, Tennyson does not appear till , and the two men were not at Cambridge together.

Among the opinions as to In Memoriam current at the time of its publication Lord Tennyson notices those of Maurice and Robertson. Conceivably they are travelling on paths which will ultimately coincide; but this opinion, of course, must seem foolishness to most professors of science. The mass of mankind will probably never be convinced unbelievers—nay, probably the backward or forward swing of the pendulum will touch more convinced belief.

But there always have been, since the Rishis of India sang, superior persons who believe in nothing not material—whatever the material may be. It is an error to be impatient: we know not whither the logos may lead us, or later generations; and we ought not to be irritated with others because it leads them into what we think the wrong path. It is unfortunate that a work of art, like In Memoriam , should arouse theological or anti-theological passions. The poet only shows us the paths by which his mind travelled: they may not be the right paths, nor is it easy to trace them on a philosophical chart.

He escaped from Doubting Castle. His poem is not a tract: it does not aim at the conversion of people with the contrary bias, it is irksome, in writing about a poet, to be obliged to discuss a philosophy which, certainly, is not stated in the manner of Spinoza, but is merely the equilibrium of contending forces in a single mind. On June 13 Tennyson married, at Shiplake, the object of his old, long-tried, and constant affection. The poet made a charming copy of verses to his friend, the Rev. Mr Rawnsley, who tied the knot, as he and his bride drove to the beautiful village of Pangbourne.

The place is very ancient and beautiful, and was a favourite haunt of Thackeray. Next day he received from Windsor the offer of the Laureateship. He doubted, and hesitated, but accepted. That by Tennyson is Anacreontic, but he was not really set on kissing the Maids of Honour, as he is made to sing. Rogers had declined, on the plea of extreme old age; but it was worthy of the great and good Queen not to overlook the Nestor of English poets. But since Sir Walter Scott declined the bays in favour of Southey, for whom, again, the tale of bricks in the way of Odes was lightened, and when Wordsworth succeeded Southey, the office became honourable.

Tennyson gave it an increase of renown, while, though in itself of merely nominal value, it served his poems, to speak profanely, as an advertisement. New editions of his books were at once in demand; while few readers had ever heard of Mr Browning, already his friend, and already author of Men and Women.

The Laureateship brought the poet acquainted with the Queen, who was to be his debtor in later days for encouragement and consolation. To his Laureateship we owe, among other good things, the stately and moving Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington , a splendid heroic piece, unappreciated at the moment.

But Tennyson was, of course, no Birthday poet. Since the exile of the House of Stuart our kings in England have not maintained the old familiarity with many classes of their subjects. Literature has not been fashionable at Court, and Tennyson could in no age have been a courtier. We hear the complaint, every now and then, that official honours are not conferred except the Laureateship on men of letters. But most of them probably think it rather distinguished not to be decorated, or to carry titles borne by many deserving persons unvisited by the Muses.

Even the appointment to the bays usually provokes a great deal of jealous and spiteful feeling, which would only be multiplied if official honours were distributed among men of the pen.

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The verses were worthy of the occasion: more they could not be. In the autumn of the poet visited Ardtornish on the Sound of Mull, a beautiful place endeared to him who now writes by the earliest associations. One can think of the poet as Mrs Sellar, his hostess, describes him, beneath the limes of the avenue at Acharn, planted, Mrs Sellar says, by a cousin of Flora Macdonald.

I have been told that the lady who planted the lilies, if not the limes, was the famed Jacobite, Miss Jennie Cameron, mentioned in Tom Jones. An English engraving of shows the Prince between these two beauties, Flora and Jennie. In May Tennyson saw the artists, of schools oddly various, who illustrated his poems. While Maud was being composed Tennyson wrote The Charge of the Light Brigade ; a famous poem, not in a manner in which he was born to excel—at least in my poor opinion.

In January Maud was finished; in April the poet copied it out for the press, and refreshed himself by reading a very different poem, The Lady of the Lake. They come, in dim procession led, The cold, the faithless, and the dead; As warm each hand, each brow as gay, As if they parted yesterday. And doubt distracts him at the view— Oh, were his senses false or true? Dreamed he of death, or broken vow, Or is it all a vision now? We learn from Lady Louisa Stuart, to whom Scott read these lines, that they referred to his lost love. I cite the passage because the extreme reticence of Scott, in his undying sorrow, is in contrast with what Tennyson, after reading The Lady of the Lake , was putting into the mouth of his complaining lover in Maud.

We have no reason to suppose that Tennyson himself had ever to bewail a faithless love. To be sure, the hero of Locksley Hall is in this attitude, but then Locksley Hall is not autobiographical. Less dramatic and impersonal in appearance are the stanzas—. No biographer tells us whether this was a personal complaint or a mere set of verses on an imaginary occasion. In In Memoriam Tennyson speaks out concerning the loss of a friend. In Maud , as in Locksley Hall , he makes his hero reveal the agony caused by the loss of a mistress. There is no reason to suppose that the poet had ever any such mischance, but many readers have taken Locksley Hall and Maud for autobiographical revelations, like In Memoriam.

They are, on the other hand, imaginative and dramatic. They illustrate the pangs of disappointed love of woman, pangs more complex and more rankling than those inflicted by death. In each case, however, the poet, who has sung so nobly the happiness of fortunate wedded loves, has chosen a hero with whom we do not readily sympathise—a Hamlet in miniature,. This choice, thanks to the popular misconception, did him some harm. Tennyson hated war, but his hero, at least, hopes that national union in a national struggle will awake a nobler than the commercial spirit.

Into the rights and wrongs of our quarrel with Russia we are not to go. We are not to expect a tranquil absence of bias in the midst of military excitement, when very laudable sentiments are apt to misguide men in both directions. In any case, political partisanship added to the enemies of the poem, which was applauded by Henry Taylor, Ruskin, George Brimley, and Jowett, while Mrs Browning sent consoling words from Italy.

The poem remained a favourite with the author, who chose passages from it often, when persuaded to read aloud by friends; and modern criticism has not failed to applaud the splendour of the verse and the subtlety of the mad scenes, the passion of the love lyrics. These merits have ceased to be disputed, but, though a loyal Tennysonian, I have never quite been able to reconcile myself to Maud as a whole. The hero is an unwholesome young man, and not of an original kind.

I suppose it has been observed that he is merely The Master of Ravenswood in modern costume, and without Lady Ashton. The situations of the hero and of the Master whose acquaintance Thackeray never renewed after he lost his hat in the Kelpie Flow are nearly identical. Both heroes live dawdling on, hard by their lost ancestral homes. Both fall in love with the daughters of the enemies of their houses. The loves of both are baffled, and end in tragedy.

Then comes an interval of madness, and he recovers amid the patriotic emotions of the ill-fated Crimean expedition. Finally, both The Bride of Lammermoor , which affected Tennyson so potently in boyhood. The hero of Maud , with his clandestine wooing of a girl of sixteen, has this apology, that the match had been, as it were, predestined, and desired by the mother of the lady. Still, the brother did not ill to be angry; and the peevishness of the hero against the brother and the parvenu lord and rival strikes a jarring note.

In England, at least, the general sentiment is opposed to this moody, introspective kind of young man, of whom Tennyson is not to be supposed to approve. The learned Monsieur Janet has maintained that love is a disease like another, and that nobody falls in love when in perfect health of mind and body. This theory seems open to exception, but the hero of Maud is unhealthy enough. He did not go out as a volunteer, and probably the Crimean winters brought him back to his original estate of cynical gloom—and very naturally.

The reconciliation with Life is not like the reconciliation of In Memoriam. The poem took its rise in old lines, and most beautiful lines, which Tennyson had contributed in to a miscellany:—. Thence the poet, working back to find the origin of the situation, encountered the ideas and the persons of Maud. I have tried to state the sources, in the general mind, of the general dislike of Maud.

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I do not know any verse out of Shakespeare in which the ecstacy of love soars to such a height. Like Aurora Leigh , Lucile , and other works, Maud is under the disadvantage of being, practically, a novel of modern life in verse.

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Criticised as a tale of modern life and it was criticised in that character , it could not be very highly esteemed. But the essence of Maud , of course, lies in the poetical vehicle. Nobody can cavil at the impressiveness of the opening stanzas—. Then the poem drops from its height, like a lark shot high in heaven; tragedy comes, and remorse, and the beautiful interlude of the. But X. Despite the almost unanimous condemnation by public critics, the success of Maud enabled Tennyson to buy Farringford, so he must have been better appreciated and understood by the world than by the reviewers.

Enid was finished in Wales in August, and Tennyson learned Welsh enough to be able to read the Mabinogion , which is much more of Welsh than many Arthurian critics possess. The two first Idylls were privately printed in the summer of , being very rare and much desired of collectors in this embryonic shape.

Their love of nature, the Duke being as keen-eyed as the poet was short-sighted, was one tie of union. The Indian Mutiny, or at least the death of Havelock, was the occasion of lines which the author was too wise to include in any of his volumes: the poem on Lucknow was of later composition. Guinevere was completed in March ; and Tennyson met Mr Swinburne, then very young. The psychology of these pests of the Muses is bewildering. They do not seem to read poetry, only to write it and launch it at unoffending strangers. The Master of Balliol, the most adviceful man, if one may use the term, of his age, appears to have advised Tennyson to publish the Idylls at once.

Who does not condone the frailties of Captain Costigan, and F. In any case, Tennyson took his own time, he was only beginning Elaine. There is no doubt that Tennyson was easily pricked by unsympathetic criticism, even from the most insignificant source, and, as he confessed, he received little pleasure from praise. All authors, without exception, are sensitive. One drop of natural feeling in poetry or the true statement of a single new fact is already felt to be of more value than all the critics put together. His prolonged silences after the attacks of and were occupied in work and reflection: Achilles was not merely sulking in his tent, as some of his friends seem to have supposed.

Old age was suggested, and is treated in The Grandmother. Other topics were not handled. The first four Idylls of the King were prepared for publication in the spring of ; while Tennyson was at work also on Pelleas and Ettarre , and the Tristram cycle. In autumn he went on a tour to Lisbon with Mr F. Palgrave and Mr Craufurd Grove. The Idylls , unlike Maud , were well received by the press, better by the public, and best of all by friends like Thackeray, the Duke of Argyll, the Master of Balliol, and Clough, while Ruskin showed some reserve. Folkestone , September. My dear old Alfred ,—I owe you a letter of happiness and thanks.

The letter full of gratitude never went as far as the post-office, and how comes it now? The landlord of the hotel asked me down to the cellar and treated me. They seem like facts to me, since about three weeks ago three weeks or a month was it? You have made me as happy as I was as a child with the Arabian Nights,—every step I have walked in Elfland has been a sort of Paradise to me.

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The landlord gave two bottles of his claret and I think I drank the most and here I have been lying back in the chair and thinking of those delightful Idylls, my thoughts being turned to you: what could I do but be grateful to that surprising genius which has made me so happy?

Do you understand that what I mean is all true, and that I should break out were you sitting opposite with a pipe in your mouth? How can you at 50 be doing things as well as at 35? But to ask a man for a favour, and to praise and bow down before him in the same page, seemed to be so like hypocrisy, that I held my hand, and left this note in my desk, where it has been lying during a little French-Italian-Swiss tour which my girls and their papa have been making. Meanwhile S. If you can by chance some day, and help an old friend, how pleased and happy I shall be!

I see one, two, three quarterlies advertised to-day, as all bringing laurels to laureatus. He will not refuse the private tribute of an old friend, will he? He sends you and yours his very best regards in this most heartfelt and artless. Always yours, my dear Alfred, W. Naturally this letter gave Tennyson more pleasure than all the converted critics with their favourable reviews.

The Duke of Argyll announced the conversion of Macaulay. I confess to the opinion that what a man does most easily is, as a rule, what he does best. The poet who can transfigure the hot present is fortunate, but most, and the greatest, have visited the cool quiet purlieus of the past. The Idylls may probably be best considered in their final shape: they are not an epic, but a series of heroic idyllia of the same genre as the heroic idyllia of Theocritus.

He wrote long after the natural age of national epic, the age of Homer. He saw the later literary epic rise in the Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius, a poem with many beauties, if rather an archaistic and elaborate revival as a whole. The time for long narrative poems, Theocritus appears to have thought, was past, and he only ventured on the heroic idyllia of Heracles, and certain adventures of the Argonauts.

Tennyson, too, from the first believed that his pieces ought to be short. Therefore, though he had a conception of his work as a whole, a conception long mused on, and sketched in various lights, he produced no epic, only a series of epic idyllia. Mercifully Tennyson never actually allegorised Arthur in that fashion. Later he thought of a musical masque of Arthur, and sketched a scenario. Finally Tennyson dropped both the allegory of Liberal principles and the musical masque in favour of the series of heroic idylls.

People may be heard objecting to the suggestion of any spiritual interpretation of the Arthur legends, and even to the existence of elementary morality among the Arthurian knights and ladies. Thus we read, in a recent novel, that Lancelot was an homme aux bonnes fortunes , whereas Lancelot was the most loyal of lovers.

Therein lies the difficulty. The scene, though not of course historic, has certain historic suggestions and characters. To halt an army for the protection and comfort of a laundress was a highly ethical action. Perhaps Sir Redvers Buller would do it: Bruce did. Mr Harrison accuses the ladies of the Idylls of soul-bewildering casuistry, like that of women in Middlemarch or Helbeck of Bannisdale. Now I am not reminded by Guinevere, and Elaine, and Enid, of ladies in these ethical novels. But because, fair damsel, that ye love me as ye say ye do, I will, for your good will and kindness, show you some goodness,.

For herein may be seen noble chivalry, courtesy, humanity, friendliness, love, cowardice, murder, hate, virtue, and sin. Do after the good and leave the evil. Lancelot is distraught when he finds that, by dint of enchantment, he has been made false to Guinevere Book XI. How such good knights can be deemed conscienceless and void of courtesy one knows not, except by a survival of the Puritanism of Ascham.

But Tennyson found in the book what is in the book—honour, conscience, courtesy, and the hero—.

In Malory they are sometimes quite too polite to kill each other. But now shalt thou go and thy fellows. Let Malory and his sources be blamed, if to be moral is to be culpable. They are chosen at a casual opening of his book. Take Sir Darras: his position is that of Priam when he meets Achilles, who slew his sons, except that Priam comes as a suppliant; Sir Darras has Tristram in his hands, and may slay him.

One would not have given a tripod for the life of Achilles had he fallen into the hands of Priam. But between B. Where and when do they not arise? A British patrol fired on certain Swazis in time of truce. Their lieutenant, who had been absent when this occurred, rode alone to the stronghold of the Swazi king, Sekukoeni, and gave himself up, expecting death by torture.

That the Idylls represent no real world is certain. That Tennyson modernises and moralises too much, I willingly admit; what I deny is that he introduces gentleness, courtesy, and conscience where his sources have none. Indeed this is not a matter of critical opinion, but of verifiable fact. Any one can read Malory and judge for himself. But the world in which the Idylls move could not be real.

For more than a thousand years different races, different ages, had taken hold of the ancient Celtic legends and spiritualised them after their own manner, and moulded them to their own ideals. But there may also have been a Brythonic deity, or culture hero, of the same, or of a similar name, and myths about him may have been assigned to a real Arthur. Again, the Arthur of the old Welsh legends was by no means the blameless king—even in comparatively late French romances he is not blameless.

Tennyson, for his purpose, completed the idealisation. Of Lancelot, and her passion for him, the old Welsh has nothing to say. Lancelot was confused with Peredur, and Guinevere with the lady of whom Peredur was in quest. As to the Grail, it may be a Christianised rendering of one or another of the magical and mystic caldrons of Welsh or Irish legend. There is even an apparent Celtic source of the mysterious fisher king of the Grail romance.

Sixth to eighth century, growth of myth about an Arthur, real, or supposed to be real. Tenth century, the Duchies of Normandy and Brittany are in close relations; by the eleventh century Normans know Celtic Arthurian stories. After, , Normans in contact with the Celtic peoples of this island are in touch with the Arthur tales. French prose romances on Arthur, from, say, to Those romances reach Wales, and modify, in translations, the original Welsh legends, or, in part, supplant them.

Amplifications and recastings are numerous. After so many processes, from folk-tale to modern idyll, the Arthurian world could not be real, and real it is not. Tales about the birth of Arthur varied. Uther weds Ygerne; both recognise Arthur as their child. However, by the Celtic custom of fosterage the infant is intrusted to Sir Ector as his dalt , or foster-child, and Uther falls in battle.

Arthur is later approven king by the adventure of drawing from the stone the magic sword that no other king could move. All this ancient popular element in the Arthur story is disregarded by Tennyson. He does not make Uther approach Ygerne in the semblance of her lord, as Zeus approached Alcmena in the semblance of her husband, Amphitryon.

He neglects the other ancient test of the proving of Arthur by his success in drawing the sword. The Celtic custom of fosterage is overlooked, and Merlin gives the child to Anton, not as the customary dalt , but to preserve the babe from danger. Here is an heir for Uther! Arthur and his ideal are objects of belief. All goes well while the knights hold that. While this faith held, all went well; when the king ceased to follow, the spell was broken,—the Maid was martyred. In this sense the poet conceives the coming of Arthur, a sign to be spoken against, a test of high purposes, a belief redeeming and ennobling till faith fails, and the little rift within the lute, the love of Lancelot and Guinevere, makes discord of the music.

As matter of legend, it is to be understood that Guinevere did not recognise Arthur when first he rode below her window—. Then their long love may have begun, as in the story of Tristram sent to bring Yseult to be the bride of King Mark. Though not of the original Celtic stock of legend, Sir Lancelot makes the romance what it is, and draws down the tragedy that originally turned on the sin of Arthur himself, the sin that gave birth to the traitor Modred.

The sons of Lot and Bellicent seem to have been originally regarded as the incestuous offspring of Arthur and his sister, the wife of King Lot. Next it was represented that Arthur was ignorant of the relationship. Mr Rhys supposes that the mythical scandal still present in Malory as a sin of ignorance arose from blending the Celtic Arthur as Culture Hero with an older divine personage, such as Zeus, who marries his sister Hera.

Marriages of brother and sister are familiar in the Egyptian royal house, and that of the Incas. But the poet has a perfect right to disregard a scandalous myth which, obviously crystallised later about the figure of the mythical Celtic Arthur, was an incongruous accretion to his legend. The poet has added to its lightness, almost frivolity, the description of the unreal city of Camelot, built to music, as when. The courtesy and prowess of Lancelot lead up to the later development of his character. In The Marriage of Geraint , a rumour has already risen about Lancelot and the Queen, darkening the Court, and presaging.

For this reason Geraint removes Enid from Camelot to his own land—the poet thus early leading up to the sin and the doom of Lancelot. But this motive does not occur in the Welsh story of Enid and Geraint, which Tennyson has otherwise followed with unwonted closeness. The tale occurs in French romances in various forms, but it appears to have returned, by way of France and coloured with French influences, to Wales, where it is one of the later Mabinogion. This unseemly antiquarian detail, of course, is omitted in the Idyll. An abstract of the Welsh tale will show how closely Tennyson here follows his original.

The king arranges a hunt, and Guinevere asks leave to go and watch the sport. Next morning she cannot be wakened, though the tale does not aver, like the Idyll, that she was. Guinevere wakes late, and rides through a ford of Usk to the hunt. The encounter with the dwarf, the lady, and the knight follows. The prose of the Mabinogi may be compared with the verse of Tennyson:—. And the maiden inquired of the dwarf who the knight was. And the maiden, through the hurt she received from the blow, returned to Gwenhwyvar, complaining of the pain. And Geraint went up to the dwarf.

Then Geraint put his hand upon the hilt of his sword, but he took counsel with himself, and considered that it would be no vengeance for him to slay the dwarf, and to be attacked unarmed by the armed knight, so he returned to where Gwenhwyvar was. Geraint therefore follows the knight in hope of finding arms, and arrives at the town all busy with preparations for the tournament of the sparrow-hawk. This was a challenge sparrow-hawk: the knight had won it twice, and if he won it thrice it would be his to keep.

The rest, in the tale, is exactly followed in the Idyll. Geraint is entertained by the ruined Yniol. Yniol frankly admits in the tale that he was in the wrong in the quarrel with his nephew. The poet, however, gives him the right, as is natural. The following ISBNs are associated with this title:. ISBN - Look for similar items by category:. Far Outer Worlds And Sequetus 3. Prices and offers may vary in store.

This book is a great read for both male and female science fiction readers. Select Parent Grandparent Teacher Kid at heart. Age of the child I gave this to:. Hours of Play:. On returning to her home planet and experiencing the death of all she loved, and almost dying herself, she swore an oath that she was even the score. She was central in removing the pirates from Sleebo, and bringing down Brandon Mirac of Palbo. She earned the nickname, Goddess of War incarnate. He believed that life on Earth originated from out in space and arrived on Earth.

Anderson was alluded to in the Early Works. He then became the Devout Coordinator for On Planet Operations, and after that began the world wide following of Torren. While Anderson never let it be known to his followers, he was the one who fired the bullet that started it all. It can be seen with the naked eye from Earth on cloudless moonless nights.

Presumed destroyed. They inhabit the Man-o-Wars. They have been known to visit Sequetus 3 over the past five thousand years. Was shipwrecked on Rambus and saved by settlers there. She attended Academia Alson of Jilta. For former past lives of Anki see Anqi Storm and Vicra Starn, both separate lives at different times, but the same person. Templar miniseries. The woman, years later, who is the mother of Akeala, and Tubin, and married to Jaron.

Juggernaut miniseries. Anqi Storm: 1. Malukan trooper, former resident of Sleebo. Important in saving Sequetus 3. Educated in biophysics in Anst Academia at Taronga, joined the Malukan Guards shortly after graduation. Started in , and continued until It had many state branches. APRO placed strong importance on scientific field investigations. There were many prominent scientific members of the group: Dr James E. James Harder of the University of California, Berkeley — civil and hydraulic engineer professor was director of research from Both scientists along with others testified before the U.

Population 2 million, with three academia. Its age is 3, standard years, predating the Confederated Council of Planets. It is the headquarters of Trans Galactic Ship Corp. It has been in orbit for two millennia. Its center is tightly protected. Its diameter is three hundred and eighty kinopacs.

Its standard gravity is 0. It rotates three times a Malukan day. The major quarries are in the northern hemisphere. The stone's properties are limestone based and calcium derived. Employer Goren Torren. On Earth he headed the Home of Goren Torren. He showed flair and became active with Boguard Letone in external affairs.

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Later he was found and did his part to bring about Intervention. After intervention he became a national USA celebrity on terrestrial television, made eleven movies, and married another member of his household. He returned to Jilta three times but remained as a resident of Earth.

He had two long-life children. He died BS a full supporter of the Temple movement. He was deemed a Minor Temple of Sequetus 3. See the definition of Temple. His prime purpose is to keep order, on a ship. It cohabited the same planet as the Aaron, in the Triangulum Galaxy, and like the Aaron, it had migrated out to over a hundred planets through that galaxy. The races were attacked and they fled their planets.

Both had natural abilities and were hunted down because of those abilities. This is a human intelligence section of the Australian government. Ataran had , people and was one of the oldest and biggest Aaron cities in Yaltipia. It was hydro powered by the cross currents of water flowing through the planet's crust.

The city is at least 15 thousand years old. Western Australia has much desert in its inner regions. The temperature often exceeds 40o C. Where rail tracks are present in deserts in Western Australia rail derailments have occurred due to the tracks buckling in the intense heat. The author worked as a salvage crew on a derailment when young. The temperature was measured as 55o Celsius in the peak of summer on the edge of the Great Victorian dessert. They are the size of a shoebox, available in many modern libraries, in different models, colours and from many manufacturers.

They were first developed on planet Peel. Made by Medicol Corp Inc. It was local dialect for fast-god, due to the speed, which he descended from the sky. Aged when killed in the fight for Mount Drapper. Source: Searfinders Index P Used on many planets in the galaxy.

A peta-ballard means the prime part of the rear end of a kul, sometimes eaten. The martial art of fighting with a two pac long thick stick made from the dense wood of the Baling tree of the Nalpan province. The name of a tree from Nalpan province. Their folklore says that this tree was intelligent and the chief god over Nalpan would come to think and get his best ideas whilst sitting under a Baling tree. Home planet Palbo. There were twenty-three warrior cities, of similar sizes. The city occupies six interconnected canyons. The saloon aboard a cruiser or destroyer, where alcohol can be served.

The name of the flight bar, on the FSS Nebulus. They were effectively made obsolete with the introduction of Warp Drives. In their defense they were effective in defense around a system and were designed to be impregnab le, but their immobility made them ineffective once Warp Drives came into existence. Battleclass have about three to four times the complement of a cruiser. These ships were too large to be governed by Warp Drive engines.

While the technology within the Warp Drive engines is secret, it is believed that there is a limit to the size of mass that a WD can effectively cover. The: The Battle of Sequetus 3 is the official title for the battle between the Hymondian and Malukan forces, in the Sequetus Series, in local time. A short-lifer, aged 42 at the writing of Book 12 of the epic series.

There are 74 varieties of Meliphagidae honeyeater and are found up and down the east coast of Australia. Trained in struck fighting in the out worlds of Jilta. He teamed up, with Amy of Rambus. Juggernaut Series. Beran Sea: A sea in southern Palbo. The deepest part is 1, pacs. Bermuda Triangle: Terrestrial 1. That triangular region of the Caribbean, incorporating Bermuda, Miami, and Port au Prince as part of the triangle. It is said that ships, people and aircraft vanish; leaving mysteries, which cannot be explained.

From this web site is the following data.. The author of the New Earth Series would encourage readers to look at this informative site. Here on shore our files are very incomplete and poor. Most lost vessels are smaller, private craft: yachts, sailboats, schooners and cabin cruisers. Many are suspect of being caused by hijacking. Therefore they cannot warrant detailed investigations.

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Because they are so common it would be equivalent to the FBI investigating every stolen automobile. Decommissioned on Celtron 4. Born BS He headed the mission onto Kantee police action to rescue the captured life-force Royals. Billy-tea: Terrestrial Tea from water boiled in a billy, a small metal deep pot with or without a lid, used in the Australian outback. Biobots generally are pacs in diameter. The Warp Drive Bank sponsored the breeding and release of the insects themselves. Camels are prevalent and wild throughout most of the desert areas of Australia.

A law breaker, a breaker of moral and ethical codes of behavior. One who creates turmoil, and one who does more harm than good around him. See also Clean Heart. Possibly, this object has been around Earth, for as long as 13, years. The Americans, and then the Russians, first observed it. Each nation thought the other was responsible. Usually, 5 x 9 pacs in size and taking up to twelve passengers. Typically there was a minimum provision of one bloat per 25 crew, and one bloat for every 20 passengers. Its wood is a rich red, dense and sought after for making furniture on Jilta.

Today the trees are numbered and protected. Each tree is plotted on a map. They can live to seven thousand standard years. There is an entire industry on Jilta dedicated to protecting these trees. They are the source of much of early Jiltanian folk lore. Each tree has resident within it hundreds and thousands of other species.

Its aroma is known to keep away parasites and plagues. The mountains are blue due to the gaseous haze emitted by the foliage of eucalypt trees. Their inception into the Federation region was about standard years after Federation conquest. Origin of race unknown. Life expectancy indefinite. Run along military lines. They are known to speak many languages, are trained in martial arts, physics. No command links with IFFCo.

Being a race the word Boguard is capitalized. They can be anything from 50 to strong depending on the objective. At that time there were up to twenty thousand Boguard Front that hit the planet at one time, carefully coordinated, taking out all communications systems in one unified moment.

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The official legal recognition that a male and female couple, had decided to cohabitate, as a single group, with the purpose of furthering the species through the production of children. The average BOND would last 36 years, with three offspring. Often re-bonding would occur later in life. The ceremony accompanying the commitment, of between a Boguard Captain and his new Man-o-War.

The bond is a lifetime agreement. Son of Fan and Gali of the Amazon. They reside in a small section of Ataran, of a square K in area. They are the ruling elite, of the Aaron and Boguard. I also allows the other person, should they wish, to strike a blow unimpeded, as the person bowing has less defence. So bowing can mean: I trust you, and you are important to me. Bridge briefings are where missions are presented and discussed in a formal manner. They are recorded for future reference. All crew attend. Only senior personnel present the bridge briefing usually from the bridge.

Female senior Boguard officer captaining the expeditionary forces fleet taking Captain Jaron to his objective mission. She was years old at this time. It was her first command as an entire fleet command. Templar miniseries 2. Consulair Brijet became her title, after being admitted to the Boulan. Brijet is the name of a fast bird a sleek small bird of Yaltipia. Yaldon means esteemed or well regarded. Earth Syndrome Series. It transmits heat and ALL energy and in this way is very different from the concept of dark matter.

Broadmatter makes up the bulk of the universe mass, and is the reason why the universe is expanding at an accelerated rate. Broadmatter ties in with space and time and without broadmatter there would be no space, no gravity and presumably no time. Without it all other matter would collectively condense.

See Broadmatter theory Addendum at the end of Book Seven for more details. This indicates how many years since the Battle of Sequetus 3. A dating system, adopted through the galaxy since the Battle for Sequetus 3. It was maintained by Hymondy and other officials and still looked after, by the Temple. The place, where non-intoxicating beverages are served, aboard a vessel. Canberra is the capital city of Australia, set up in the highlands, meters above sea level. Architect Walter Burley Griffen, from Chicago, designed it.

Its population was around , at the time of editing. Pyramids as over Parliament House of Australia, Canberra. The city street layout is designed on an eye of providence design, similar to the back of the American dollar bill. The Canberra street layout around parliament house has streets running off in a pattern of not only the eye of providence, but are coincident in layout style to the inner shaft design patterns of the Great Pyramid in Egypt. See pyramids. The temperature of Canberra in the winter gets down to -5o C in the winter and lower in the suburbs. The word Canberra means meeting place in Aboriginal.

Many Canberrans have much to say about the high incidence of UFO activity in this very small city. Captain: 1. Middle rank in IFFCo. Usually In command of an interceptor squadron, a destroyer, or a fighter team. Below Lieutenant Commander in rank. Highest field rank in the Boguard. See Yard. Started in the Coproduce service when 18 years old. Carriers: 1. Short for non military ore carriers. They are generally made in space, and can be many kilometers long.

They are under WD. The carriers connect up section after section sometimes known as pods , and can be as many as four sections long. Federation military carriers contain a compliment of between to fighters, and a total of onboard crew of 1, to 9, These ships pack a tight crew, have high morale. In the Federation of Jilta the word hive is used in slang to mean carrier, and darlt is often used for fighter. A darlt is an insect from Jiltanian mythology that when stirred would seek out its enemy anywhere to attack, even if it meant the insect itself died.

The tradition of using this term goes back well before Federation of Jilta. While they are big they have a very small crew. From Jilta, and from parents, who were Templars. His father was a leading Cordello of Jilta. His rank was Captain. He was instrumental for saving Lorde Jaron stranded on Tors, saving Anki in Palbo, and becomes one of the most highly decorated Cordukes in his lifetime.

An illegal act, but practiced in some sectors, especially in remote mining areas. Law systems turn a blind eye to the practice as most offences happen in return for illegal acts. Probable population 6, Houses were plastered with murals painted on walls showing people and farming. They grew wheat, barley, raised sheep and kept dogs. C stands for Change. A planet in the Jiltanian out worlds where both Belkron Blu and Castano served. Population million. Agrarian economy, feudal by nature. Gravity 1. Centoria is the capital system, where there are two inhabited planets. Being adjacent to Earth, Centoria has the most number of temple buildings, secondly only to Jilta.

Centoria is the closest system capital to Earth. That force is an artificial gravity. Either a life-force or a computer program that ran the Six Worlds. It was responsible for the depopulation of almost all the Santonia Galaxy at its time. It existed on the other side of the Portal, but tied to Earth. It was defeated by Goren Torren and the Boguard and the race known as the Pleiadians. New-Earth Series 2. A spiritual life form that had a pure intent, to help mankind, but had a, human-made computer program, at it was corrupted.

Celtron Centrum: The largest township on Celtron 4. Population 2 million. Low water, little minerals. The planet has six moons and both Celtron 4 and its moons are used as storage yards for space ships that are now ineffective, can withstand gravity, and can be cannibalized for parts. Single 32 years old. They were married for three years during at this time. Upon the end of the Battle of Sequetus 3 Navia moved to Sequetus.

That corporation collapsed after a siege, by the terrestrial forces. She then took on a role gathering data and waited for the return of Torren, using the new corporation Acram. Upon intervention she continued on in Sequetus, and went back to her earlier profession of lecturing in anthropology until her retirement. She wrote 23 books while as a lecturer to universities in New York, London and Tokyo. She died standard years after C Day. She never returned to see Jilta, maintaining that she wanted to retain good memories of her home.

She never remarried, no children. She is considered by the House of Torren to be one of the Temples see definition of Temples of Sequetus 3. She was a friend of Mali Skanes and Arden Keote. Later, she worked for the Bank and vanished. She turned up on Mortifor station-city.

One who can not only send attention back into, and forward into time, but one who can take himself there and change events around him. The body of armed civilian security personnel who are responsible for the peace of Jilta. They had what was said to be the best periodical on UFOs at the time. The CSI periodical is also claimed to have been a key source for J. Allen Hynek — particularly for overseas cases, for his research in Project Blue Book. During this time, the Robertson Panel was trying to divert cases away from Hynek. It also means civilian clothes, civilian life, as distinct to military.

The palm and three fingers must be present. No warhead. Designed to explode and send the burning gel to other areas to set those other areas alight. The warhead is packed with explosive shells, so that when the war head explodes, it sends armor piercing unexploded shells through armor plate and they in turn explode, on the other side of armor plate. Unclean meant the person was thinking of deceit.

A person who does more good for society and self than harm. A person who abides by the ethical and moral codes, and laws of society. See also Blackheart. Clifes are either dress or combat style. Origin: from the days before Federation when the Royal race was planet bound, the clife was worn as an instrument for bonding of the earlier warrior clans. Cold Hype: Death that results from exposure to subzero temperatures in space, freezing of the limbs and body.

He survived the Battle of Sequetus 3. Has the large Johnson Crater named after him on Mars. By Comm-Tact Industries, Jilta. A Base has a Communication Center, which is the focus of all data going in and out. Famed or infamous for its early invention — intelligent computers. After the Medallian Rebellion, the Compu executives were interned off-planet and CCP administrators placed inside the company. After this the company expanded, to become the largest interplanetary corporation in the Federation, with 1.

Manufactured by Compu Systems Interplanetary Inc. In a space fleet they are used to show the tally of battle. At the time it was recorded as a brilliant technological marvel. Not only could it store and extrapolate data to logical conclusions, but also it had the ability to self perpetuate in other computers. The basis of all intelligent computers was the program create, coupled with the subprogram survive.

Intelligent computers led to the lowering of human-life to that of a servile status to computers. Without the intervention of neighboring galactic civilizations, and the Medallian Rebellion, these social degrading phenomena of humankind would have spread throughout the Santonia Galaxy. The cost of the Medallian Rebellion was fifteen billion humanoid lives which were needed to defeat the intelligent machines.

Confederacy: The loose governing body, democratic, that ruled the known outer galaxy prior to the conquest by the Federation. The full title is The Confederated Council of Planets. CCP It existed loosely for a hundred and twenty thousand years. The Federation defeated it in only decades defeated it.

CCP The loose and often extended term applied to the political attempt to bring the multitude of races, political systems et al together to end the warring of two hundred and thirty standard years in the Santonia Galaxy. The Confederacy failed at total unification and was succeeded by the Federation. As a result the Confederacy was never conquered by a single force or in agreement with itself. Often planets would get forgotten and cultures rediscovered over centuries.

During this fighting many government sections of cities were razed and government records lost. This was as much a cultural and economic set back as anything else. It was a loss of historical records. Similar in status to an ambassador. Founder - Bin Gruff. Peel, Kalanon. Mostly it was mining titanium on Celtron 4. It had no interests outside the Hymondian sector, and had 2, employees. Effectively dissolved at the Battle of Sequetus 3. The miners remaining after the battle renamed the company and moved its corporate headquarters to Earth.

They in turn became to be known as the Masters on Six Worlds. It means the ruling executive council of the Boulan of Ataran, Yaltipia. Comes from local Aaron, Consul meaning advisor Cons — advice, word or knowledge , and airus, meaning like. The actual conversion is done by the life-forces, running the Boguard Man-o-War ships; imbuing life and freedom, into a trapped life, which is under threat and duress, in the Warp Drive compartments of a Warp Drive Bank vessel.

He published a book, which came out after his death. The Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres. The book made an impact on Galileo and other scientists. The Church banned the book. He worked for the Church most of his life and died from a coma following a stroke. There are Ten Cordellos, but that will be later expanded, to include more Minor Temples.

There were originally fiver Cordellos, and they were presided over by the Great Sharman. There were another five Cordellos representing the Lessor Houses. This number has been increasing, as the Outer-Worlds becomes inhabited. The word comes from old Standard Galactic cordelle, meaning small rope, indicating the knotted cord worn by the Cordellos. It comes from the old Standard Galactic word, chorda, which comes from the confederacy term khorde, meaning string of a musical instrument. The connotation here, being that, if the Master Templar uses his Cordukes well, there will be harmony within the Temple.

Before the Coreen Wind arrives, locals know to vacate the mountains. On Jilta, north, northern hemisphere. Home of the Confederacy inspired uprisings against the Federation in the Hymondian Realm. This cost the lives of three million civilians and military. Planet in the Federation that previously was relegated to backwaters after severe depression. It being a mining planet that also relied heavily on computer manufacture, it was depressed economically after the Medallian Rebellion.

The planet later changed its name to Karakas. Population , at date 1, BS, and an outpost for the federation. It once had a population of 50, at date BS. The galactic pronunciation of the credit is dahl. Its subunit is dihlo, and takes ten dihlos to a dahl, and ten strake to make a dihlo. For the sake of translation in this book we use the word credit. Federation unit of currency, whereby tied to the Average Production Index. The average person earns about seven hundred credits dahls a week, but this varies upon the wealth of the planet.

The value of credits remains constant and inflation and deflation are negligible with the Average Production Index system. Material assets only rose and fell against the Average Production Index, not credits. Similar to a bank. It houses between forty to sixty interceptors with five escort fighters for each interceptor. Personnel number around 3, per ship. The period starts around BC to BC, and the language was still in use a thousand years later.

There are around a million known cuneiform clay tablets. The tablets are fired clay, meaning that they were inscribed upon, and then fired to very hard resistant surfaces, so that today they are still easily read. The language has been understood, and easily translated. The language started from picture grams. The word cuneiform means wedge shaped.

The photographs revealed, what appears to be a huge p yramid, and face, on the planet surface, sculptured into a mountain. There is also claimed, what appears to be the remnants of an old fortification. The findings have been controversial, as were follow up photos by the Surveyor craft.

Daffy Duck. Popular on television s - 70s. Died in the Battle of Sequetus 3, decorated. Was middle manager at GCM. Not married, parents Jane and Mel Lyll on Kalanon.